Research Articles

and information

Academic Papers

EAGALA Model specific

Russell-Martin, L.A. (2006).  Equine facilitated couples therapy and Solution Focused couples therapy: A comparative study.  Doctorate of Philosophy, Northcentral University.

Shultz, B. (2005).  The effects of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy on the psychosocial functioning of at-risk adolescents ages 12-18.  Unpublished Masters Thesis. Denver Seminary. Denver, CO.

Tetreault, A. (2006).  Horses that heal: The effectiveness of Equine Assisted Growth and Learning on the behavior of students diagnosed with Emotional Disorder.  Unpublished Masters Thesis. Governors State University, University Park, IL.


General Equine Assisted Psychotherapy (other models utilized or not model specific)

Aduddell, M.M. (2003). Effects of equine assisted psychotherapy on adolescent attitudes and behaviors. Unpublished manuscript. Colorado Christian University.

Bray, B. (2002). Treating adolescents using equine assisted psychotherapy: Effects on self concept, anxiety, and depression. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Whitman College.

Emory, D.K. (1992). Effects of therapeutic horsemanship on the self concept and behavior of asocial adolescents. Unpublished dissertation, University of Maine.

Greenwald, A.J. (2001). The effect of a therapeutic horsemanship program on emotionally disturbed boys. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62.

Hutchinson, J. (2009).  Equine Assisted Psychotherapy:  Horses are still helping us today.  Unpublished manuscript.  Pioneer Pacific College.

Trotter, Kay Sudekum (2006). The Efficacy of Equine Assisted Group Counseling with At-risk Children and Adolescents. Doctorate of Philosophy (Counseling), University of North Texas.


Published in Peer Review Journals



EAGALA Model specific

Kemp, K., Signal, T., Botros, H., Taylor, N., Prentice, K. (2013).  Equine Facilitated Therapy with children and adolescents who have been sexually abused: A program evaluation study. Journal of Child and Family Studies DOI 10.1007/s10826-013-9718-1

Nurenberg, J.R. etal (2014). Animal-Assisted Therapy With Chronic Psychiatric Inpatients: Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy and Aggressive Behavior. Psychiatric Services in Advance, Oct. 1, 2014.

Nurenberg, J.R., Schleifer, S., Madara, B., Yellin, M., Desai, P., Shaffer, T., & Allen, A. (2011). Equine assisted psychotherapy for patients with severe chronic psychiatric disorders. Presentation at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Schultz, P., Remick-Barlow, G., & Robbins, L. (2007). Equine-assisted psychotherapy: A mental health promotion/intervention modality for children who have experienced intra-family violence. Health & Social Care in the Community 15(3), 265-271.

Trotter, K., Chandler, C., Goodwin-Bond, D., & Casey, J. (2008).  A comparative study of the efficacy of group equine assisted counseling with at-risk children and adolescents.  Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, Vol. 3(3), 254-284.

Whittlesey-Jerome, W.K. (2014). Adding Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy to Conventional Treatments: A Pilot Study Exploring Ways to Increase Adult Self-Efficacy among Victims of Interpersonal Violence. The Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling and Professional Psychology, Vol. 3, 82-101.


General Equine Assisted Psychotherapy services (other models utilized or not model specific)

Chardonnens, E. (2009). The use of animals as co-therapists on a farm: The child-horse bond in Person-Centered Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 8(4), 319-332.

Frewin, K. & Gardiner, B. (2005).  New age or old sage? A review of equine assisted psychotherapy. The Australian Journal of Counselling Psychology, 6, pp13-17.

Kaiser, L., Spence, L.J., Lavergne, A.G., & Bosch, K.L. (2004). Can a week of therapeutic riding make a difference? A pilot study. Anthrozoos, 17, 63-72.

Karol, J. (2007). Applying a traditional individual psychotherapy model to equine-facilitated psychotherapy (EFP): Theory and Method. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(1), 77-90.

Klontz, B.T., Bivens, A., Leinart, D. & Klontz, T. (2007).  The effectiveness of equine-assisted experiential therapy: Results of an open clinical trial.  Society and Animals, 15 (2007), 257-267.

Pendry, P., Smith, A. N., & Roester, S. M. (2014). Randomized trial examines effects of equine facilitated learning on adolescents’ basal cortisol levels. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 2 (1), 80-95.

Rothe, E.Q., Vega, J., Torres, R.M., Soler, S.M.C. & Pazos, R.M.M. (2005). From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5(2), 373-383.

Scheidhacker, M., Friedrich, D., & Bender, W. (2002). About the treatment of anxiety disorders by psychotherapeutic riding: Long term observations and results of an experimental clinical study. Krankenhauspsychiatrie, 13, 145-152.

Selby, A., Smith-Osborne, A. (2012). A systematic review of effectiveness of complementary and adjunct therapies and interventions involving equines. Health Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0029188

Zugich, M., Klontz, T., & Leinart, D. (2002).  The miracle of equine therapy.  Counselor Magazine, 3(6), 22-27.

Research in the Media

Media coverage of research correlating horses to mental health and personal development benefits.

Alzheimer’s Dementia

Anger and Violence

Emotional Intelligence


Supportive Research
Experiential Adventure Therapy

Bandoroff, S & Newes, S. (Eds.) (2004). Coming of age: The evolving field of adventure therapy. Boulder, CO: Association for Experiential Education.

Freeman, P.A., Nelson, D. C., & Taniguchi, S.T. (2003). Philosophy and practice of wilderness-based experiential learning. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance, 74 (8) 25-.

Gass, M. A. (1993). Adventure therapy: therapeutic applications of adventure programming, Dubuque, 10: Kendall/Hunt.

Gavetti, G. & Levinthal, D. (2000). Looking forward and looking backward: Cognitive and experiential search. Admin Sci. Quarterly, 45 (1), 113-137.

Hattie, J., Marsh,H., Neill,J. & Richards, R. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.

Luckner, J.L. & Nadler, R.S. (1997). Processing the experience: Strategies to enhance and generalize Learning. Dubuque, 10: Kendall/Hunt.

Animal-Assisted Therapy

Chandler, C.K., Portrie-Bethke, Barrio Minton, C.A., Fernando, D.M., & O’Callghan, D.M. (2010). Matching animal-assisted therapy techniques and intentions with counseling guiding theories. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(40), 354-374.

Mason, M. S., & Hagan, C. B. (1999). Pet-assisted psychotherapy. Psychological Reports, 84, 1235-1245.

Nimer, J., & Lundahl, B. (2007). Animal-assisted therapy: A meta-analysis. Anthrozoos, 20(3) 225-238.

Solution-Focused Therapy

Matthews, William J. (1999). Brief Therapy: A problem solving model of change. The Counselor, July/Aug 99, pp29-32

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